PSA is an organisation whose aim is to make Polish air clean and compliant with Polish and European air quality standards.
This aim is achievable. However,
 the following changes need to be introduced and enforced:

  • Anti-smog resolutions in voivodships which introduce an obligation to have the old boilers replaced with modern and air-friendly heating systems. These provisions should streamline the replacement of around 4 million non-compliant coal and biomass boilers, nicknamed ‘smokers’ for the large quantities of pollutants emitted;
  • Coal quality standards.  The quality of coal sold to households for many years has been unregulated and poor quality coal, including coal waste, was sold to households. This has changed due to PSA pressure and in 2018 first coal quality standards were introduced. These provisions need to be enforced and made stricter;
  • Emission standards for solid fuel boilers. Over 70% of particulate pollution in Poland comes from low power solid fuel boilers. Although solid fuel boilers (burning coal and wood) are still the most popular source of heating in single family buildings, due to PSA pressure emission standards for household boilers have been established in Poland in 2018;
  • Introduction of low emission zones in cities with heavy car traffic. The number of cars per 1,000 inhabitants in Warsaw is over twice as high as in Berlin. The situation is similar in other large Polish cities. The average age of passenger car in Poland is over 13 years, half of which are diesel. Due to PSA pressure Polish cities gained right to establishing low emission zones and eliminating most polluting cars. The first such a zone was voted in Krakow in 2022 and several other cities (e.g. Warsaw, Wrocław) are planning similar measures;
  • Introduction of excise tax for cars based on Euro norms. Currently the excise tax is based on the engine volume, which leads to increasing import of old diesel cars from western countries, which ban them from city traffic;
  • Tightening of provisions on MOT, including DPF tampering;
  • Introduction of incentives for development of public transport in rural and suburban areas;
  • Solutions that will allow for better control of emissions from industrial facilities.


  • Effective implementation of subsidy schemes that support the elimination of old coal and wood boilers and thermal renovation of houses. Following extensive PSA pressure, such a scheme was established in 2018;
  • Support for the poorest citizens in the process of heating system replacement (fuel poverty alleviation programmes), including subsidies to installation of new heat sources and thermal renovation of houses.


  • Regulations aimed at improving air quality must be accompanied by regulations encouraging citizens to take action,
  • To achieve this an effective system of control over the use of household solid fuel boilers and types of fuels burnt in these devices has to be introduced. Currently 80% of municipalities in Poland do not have such a system implemented,
  • Enforcement and control is also important for traffic and industrial emissions.


Lowering smog alert thresholds. Polish citizens are not fully informed of the dangers associated with air pollution. Among all EU states, Poland has one of the most liberal rules for determining pollution levels and informing the general public about the scale of the problem. Just to compare – in Paris, a smog alert is announced when PM10 levels reach 80 µg/m3 whereas applicable alert threshold in Poland is almost twice as high, i.e. 150 µg/m3.